Why Can Some People Eat Whatever They Want and Not Gain Weight?

لماذا يمكن للبعض تناول ما يحلو لهم دون زيادة في الوزن؟

You know people like this, or at least you think you do. They gorge on burgers and candy and cake, never seem to move from the couch and yet maintain a perfectly trim figure.

But according to diet experts, such a person hasn’t discovered some magic spell to avoid weight gain. Weight loss and management – apart from potential biological factors – come down to what people eat and how much activity they include in their daily lives.

“When you observe somebody who doesn’t seem to gain weight, they’re not defying the laws of thermodynamics, the laws of physics,” says U.S. News Best Diets expert panelist Dr. Larry Cheskin, the director of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center. What they’re doing, in some fashion, is balancing their intake and output, he adds.

This phenomenon is very common in young children, Cheskin says. For example, if kids choose to go run around the block, they’ll likely come back and eat more than they normally would. But then they won’t repeat those same eating habits for the rest of the week.

Someone who seems to not have to watch what they’re eating as an adult is achieving such a balance. Some people say they can eat what they want but if you truly scrutinize their lifestyle, you’d find they eat small portions of food and that they limit the high-fat, high-sugary foods in their eating plans, according to registered dietitian Rebecca Reeves an adjunct assistant professor at the University of Texas School of Public Health in Austin, Texas and also a U.S. News Best Diets expert panelist. They probably could eat whatever they want, but they know how to moderate the intake.

Reeves also says these people are probably active in some way, even if it’s just walking three or four times a week, an hour at a time, or avoiding a sedentary life by being busy or active during the day. You’d be surprised how many calories you burn even doing things like taking the stairs, she says.

Cheskin notes the standard exercise recommendation is to get a half hour of moderate physical activity – like walking at a brisk pace – on most if not all days, and that people who are more physically active have lower risks of heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.

Cheskin points out people who don’t seem to gain weight may have favorable biological factors, like a faster metabolism, more lean tissue or more muscle mass. Inherently they may be able to burn more calories. Reeves says she doesn’t think people can cop out and blame their excess weight all on genetics, and believes they can cope with their body structure and layer good eating habits and physical activity on top of that.

With all that in mind, what is a more efficient way to lose weight? Both Cheskin and Reeves suggest a number of strategies, including seeking help from weight-management professionals.

Reeves warns you shouldn’t think idealistically regarding weight-loss goals; the goal is that you want to be healthy. You should start, she says, by monitoring what you’re eating. “It’s a lot easier to cut 500 calories out of your diet” than it is to work off those 500 calories, Cheskin says. You can eat in three minutes what it would take you an hour and a half at the gym to burn off.

If you’re struggling beyond that, Cheskin says you should remember you’re not alone. In addition to the role genetics and metabolism play, he notes that the U.S. is an environment constantly pushing us in the wrong direction. Most people don’t have trouble getting enough calories given the food options in the U.S., not to mention that this is a culture where no one is going to make you be physically active or eat healthy. It’s not just that our habits are bad, but that our society makes it easier to stray.


وجدت دراسة جديدة أن النحافة موجودة في الجينات، بحيث يمكن للكثير من الناس البقاء نحيلين دون الحاجة إلى قوة إرادة واتباع نظام غذائي قاس.

وحدد العلماء، بقيادة جامعة كامبريدج، سلسلة من الجينات التي قد تسرع عملية التمثيل الغذائي لفرد ما، أو تساعد على حرق الدهون بسرعة أكبر.

وعثر على هذه الجينات لدى أكثر من 16 ألف شخص نحيف ولكن بصحة جيدة. ويُعتقد أن ثلثي هؤلاء الناس تقريبا، يملكون جينات تجعلهم أقل اهتماما بالطعام.

وفي 40% من مجموعة الدراسة، قال النحيفون إنهم يحبون الطعام ويأكلون ما يشاءون دون أي زيادة في الوزن.

والآن، يعتقد الباحثون أن هؤلاء الأشخاص لديهم جينات خاصة بهم، لذا يخططون لإجراء دراسة منفصلة لمعرفة ما يحدث في أجسامهم عند تناولهم وجبة خفيفة.

ويمكن أن يؤدي ذلك إلى تطوير أدوية جديدة تحاكي آثار جينات “النحافة”، يمكن استخدامها لمساعدة الأشخاص الأقل حظا في الحفاظ على وزنهم.

وقال الأستاذ صدف فاروقي، المعد الأقدم للدراسة من معهد “Wellcome-MRC” للعلوم الأيضية بجامعة كامبريدج: “تظهر الدراسة لأول مرة أن هؤلاء الأشخاص النحفاء يتمتعون بصحة جيدة لأن لديهم مستوى أقل من الجينات، التي تزيد من فرص اكتساب الوزن الزائد”.

وفي أكبر دراسة على الإطلاق لجينات النحافة لدى الناس، قام الباحثون بتجنيد مشاركين بريطانيين نحيلين (في الأربعينات من العمر)، يتمتعون بصحة جيدة، مع استبعاد أي شخص يمارس الرياضة لأكثر من 3 مرات في الأسبوع.

وأخذ الباحثون عينات اللعاب لسلسلة جينات المشاركين النحفاء، البالغ عددهم 1622، ثم قارنوها مع أكثر من 10 آلاف شخص متوسط الوزن، وحوالي 2000 شخص مصاب بالسمنة الشديدة.

ووجدوا 4 مناطق جينية جديدة مرتبطة بالنحافة، وأكدوا أن هناك منطقتين موجودتين أصلا لدى الآسيويين.

وخلصت الدراسة، التي نُشرت في مجلة PLOS Genetics، إلى أن 18% من النحافة مكتوبة في حمضنا النووي، ما يفسر سبب امتلاك الأشخاص ذوي الوالدين النحيفين بشكل طبيعي، لنوع الجسم نفسه.

المصدر: ديلي ميل

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