Facts and lies about fat damage and types

حقائق وأكاذيب بشأن أضرار الدهون وأنواعها

Fat has been gaining popularity in recent years after decades of being blamed as the leading cause of the global obesity epidemic.

After many scientific studies on the types and effects of fatty foods, it was found that this substance is a necessary source of energy.

Although carbohydrates are more effective and faster absorbed than fat, this element is an indispensable source of energy needed by the body, especially if consumed in balanced quantities.

In an article in Spanish newspaper Espanyol, Roberto Mendes says fats, carbohydrates and proteins are part of the human diet, but each should be determined according to each person’s needs, because the lack or increase of a particular nutrient can cause health problems.

Fat is the best long-term energy source, and although carbohydrates are the preferred energy-saving because of its easy conversion, fat is best suited for long-time athletes.

In addition to breathing exercises such as walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, and breathing exercises such as weight lifting, energy training is recommended.

In addition, heart and liver prefer fat to carbohydrates during normal daily activities.

In contrast, when physical activity is more intense it becomes carbohydrate, especially the first source glucose to nourish the muscle.

The brain usually prefers glucose to any other source of energy, but if it manages to adapt, it can consume ketone molecules, although it can never consume fat directly. It always needs at least 20 percent glucose.

Each gram of fat provides nine calories, which makes it the most nutrient rich in calories, and fats – besides their function as fuel for the body – play a role in the formation and function of the body.

Fat is also an essential component of cell membranes, and is also essential for absorbing vitamins such as vitamins A, D and K, also known as lipid-soluble vitamins.

Fat is essential for maintaining body temperature, so any deficiency or diet imbalance may pose a risk to human health.

Types and locations of fat
Natural fats are divided into two parts, saturated and unsaturated fats, but there are also artificial types, and research has proved harmful to the human body, such as trans fats.

Saturated fat: Recent clinical trials have confirmed that this type leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, such as heart attacks and strokes, so doctors recommend that our daily consumption of this type should not exceed 6% of the total calories we receive.

This type of fat is found in animal products, such as red meat and dairy products such as cheese, whole milk, dark chocolate, butter, fish and egg yolks, and some vegetable oils such as palm oil and coconut are rich in saturated fats.

According to some studies, saturated fat per se causes damage to metabolism and cardiovascular functions, but is less harmful than trans fats.

In another study published in the journal “Lancet” scientific believes that the determination of the risk associated with fat in excess of his estimate, and generally result from reduced consumption of fat and increase the consumption of carbohydrates harms health safety.

Unsaturated fats: This type of fat – according to doctors – is called “good fats”, which should be consumed as much as possible as useful to reduce the levels of harmful cholesterol.

It also avoids the risk of cardiovascular disease. This type of fat is divided into two parts: monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, depending on their chemical composition.

Among the foods rich in the first type are olive oil and canola oil, not to mention avocados and nuts. The second type is particularly found in sunflower oil, corn oil and soy, and the two types can be found in blue fish.

In theory, reducing the consumption of saturated fat and increasing the consumption of unsaturated fats lead to higher cholesterol levels in the body, and this leads to higher levels of fatty acids Omega 6 and Omega 3, which help protect the heart.

Trans fats: are industrial food products that are made by converting vegetable oils into a solid state by passing through the stages of manufacturing. The main role of this type of fat is to preserve the food in its fresh and attractive condition, which is now widely used in kitchens and restaurants.

The Journal of the British Medical Association published in 2015 a study confirms that this type of fat increases the risk of death, especially because of cardiovascular disease.

It is agreed that trans fats do not provide any benefit to the human body but are used to improve the flavor and strength of the food.

Are high-fat diets harmful?
There are a lot of opinions on this, and there are a variety of diets such as ketone diet, which is characterized by reduction of carbohydrates and the increase in fat.

Unlike the normal diet (carbohydrates 45-55%, fat 30-35%, proteins 10-15%) the fat content in the diet of ketones to 70 or 80%, proteins 15-20%, and carbohydrates do not exceed 5%.

Doctors assert that these ratios must vary according to the nature of each person’s body and needs. The amount of carbohydrates a person needs can be calculated according to his weight or his ability to burn fat to convert it into energy.

A high-fat diet can delay muscle and brain injury by getting tired and improving body building by maintaining muscle mass and improving insulin resistance.

بدأت الدهون تحظى بشعبية متزايدة خلال السنوات الأخيرة بعد أن ظلت لعقود متهمة بأنها السبب الأول في وباء البدانة الذي انتشر بشكل خطير في العالم.

وبعد أن أجريت عديد من الأبحاث العلمية بشأن أنواع وتأثيرات الأغذية الدهنية تبين أن هذه المادة مصدر ضروري للطاقة.

وعلى الرغم من أن الكربوهيدرات أكثر فاعلية وأسرع امتصاصا من الدهون فإن هذا العنصر مصدر لا غنى عنه للطاقة التي يحتاجها الجسم، خاصة في حال استهلكت بكميات متوازنة.

ويقول الكاتب روبرتو مينديز في مقال بصحيفة “إسبانيول” الإسبانية إن الدهون والكربوهيدرات والبروتينات جزء من النظام الغذائي للإنسان، لكن يجب أن تحدد نسبة استهلاك كل منها بحسب احتياجات كل شخص، لأن نقص أو زيادة عنصر غذائي معين يمكن أن يسبب مشاكل صحية.

وتعتبر الدهون أفضل مصدر للطاقة طويلة المدى، وعلى الرغم من أن الكربوهيدرات هي المفضلة لتوفير الطاقة بسبب سهولة تحويلها في الجسم فإن الدهون تكون الأنسب بالنسبة إلى ممارسي الرياضات التي تحتاج بذل الجهد لوقت طويل.

وينصح ممارسو التمارين العضلية إلى جانب تمارين التنفس مثل المشي والركض والسباحة وركوب الدراجة وتمارين حبس الأنفاس مثل رفع الأثقال بالاعتماد على الدهون للحصول على الطاقة.

إضافة إلى ذلك، يفضل القلب والكبد الدهون على الكربوهيدرات خلال الأنشطة اليومية العادية.

في المقابل، عندما يكون النشاط البدني أكثر كثافة تصبح الكربوهيدرات، خاصة مادة الجلوكوز المصدر الأول لتغذية العضلات.

كما أن الدماغ يفضل عادة الجلوكوز عن أي مصدر آخر للطاقة، ولكن إذا نجح في التأقلم يمكنه أن يستهلك جزيئات الكيتونات على الرغم من أنه لا يستطيع أبدا استهلاك الدهون مباشرة، حيث يحتاج دائما إلى نسبة 20% على الأقل من الجلوكوز.

وكل غرام من الدهون يوفر تسعة سعرات حرارية، وهو ما يجعله العنصر الغذائي الغني أكثر من غيره بالسعرات، كما أن الدهون -إلى جانب وظيفتها كوقود للجسم- تلعب دورا في تكوين وعمل وظائف الجسم.

كما أن الدهون تعد مكونا أساسيا في أغشية الخلايا، وهي أيضا ضرورية لامتصاص أنواع من الفيتامينات مثل الفيتامينات “أ”، و”د”، و”ك” المعروفة أيضا بالفيتامينات التي تذوب في الدهون.

وتعد الدهون ضرورية للحفاظ على درجة حرارة الجسم، ولذلك فإن أي نقص في هذه المادة أو خلل في الحمية الغذائية قد يمثل خطرا على صحة الإنسان.

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